Political and Spiritual Culture of the West in Modern and Contemporary History
Basic Divisions: Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Perm regional branch of the Russian Intellectual History Society
Brief Description of Research Activities
The significance of the trend is determined by special attention of Russian science to cultural factors of the historical process. Exploration of such factors is very important for better understanding of the processes taking place in the modern society, since culture reveals global contradictions it is acute for the researchers to try to solve the conflicts and explain the specificities of the modern society.
The main trend of the research is investigation of social and political views and political ideologies. The topics of the profound research are conservatism and liberalism, their evolution, typology, the comparative analysis of national variants of these ideologies. In 1994 the Centre for Conservatism Investigation under the supervision of Pavel Y. Rakhshmir was started in Perm State University. In 1993-2003 seven international conferences were held with participation of Russian and foreign scholars and political practitioners.
The results of the investigation made by Perm historical scientists are recognised by the Russian scientific community as well as abroad. The typology of conservatism developed by Pavel Y. Rakhshmir, his speculations about the origin of conservatism and character of correlation between conservatism and right radicalism, are widely applied by specialists. He revealed and described common and specific features typical of the West European, American and Russian traditions of conservatism, political and value bases of the consensus between conservatives and liberals.
The problems of conservatism in the aspect of History of Central and Eastern Europe peoples are studied by Maxim A. Bulakhtin. He did the Doctoral Dissertation “Ideology and political activity of the party of “Krakow Conservatives” in 1907-1914” (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. Moscow, 2010). Due to the use of extensive historical and cultural context while researching the local problems the author revealed specific features of conservatism at the time of the Habsburg Empire. The results of the research are also of great significance since Austria-Hungary has not been so profoundly studied in Russian science yet. Thus, the research work by Maxim A. Bulakhtin expands and enriches the scope of problems of the main scientific trend to a considerable extent.
At the present time the Centre for Conservatism Research jointly with the Perm branch of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are working on the historical and biographical dictionary “Conservatism”, which will also include the entries of foreign scientists.
The problems of social reformism, political views and activity of German politicians in the XIX-XX centuries are studied by T.Z. Shmidt. G.M. Alpatova and T.R. Saikina explore the ideology of political parties in Great Britain, views of famous politicians and intellectuals of the XXth century. The achieved scientific results are used in the educational process, for example, in the special course “Genre of Biography in Modern Historiography”.
In the sphere of social and political view research the Candidate Dissertation “Evolution of F. Fukuyama and S. Huntington‘s Philosophic and Political Theories: comparative analysis” is done by M.N. Korotkova. (The Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Yekaterinburg, 2011). A.Y. Prudnikov did the Candidate Dissertation “The Problem of an Ideal State in the Political Doctrines of Eurasianism and Neoeurasianism”. (The Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Yekaterinburg, 2011).
The significant research problem is spiritual culture of the West in the course of Modern and Contemporary History, which is explored by S.N. Dementyeva and N.F. Ushkevich. While researching the problem scholars put an emphasis on the methodological aspects of the investigation of culture, foreign cinematography, literature, mass culture, cultural policy of the Western countries and modern cultural movements. These issues are studied considering social and political life of the Western countries.
Another line of the research is intellectual history which is resulted in studying the questions of Historical Sciences methodology, professional culture of the historian, problems of Modern Historiography and new fundamental classical theories. The achieved scientific results are regularly published in one of the leading scientific journals – “Dialogue with Time” (the World History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). M.P. Lapteva, the supervisor and moderator of the Perm regional branch of the Russian Intellectual History Society, participates in the scientific project “Terminology of Modern Historical Science: Theory and Methods”, which is organised by the History and Historical Knowledge Centre of the World History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Another scientific line of the Programme, which is actively developed, is the gender research. The Candidate Dissertation “Two Waves of Feminist Movement in Great Britain: dynamics of political and social relations” devoted to this problem was done by D.B. Vershinina in 2007. Special attention to gender aspects of the humanitarian knowledge caused the establishment of the Centre for Gender Research in 2010, which is supervised by D.B. Vershinina.
The new trend “International Relations” was introduced in Perm State University in 2011. Studying the problems within the trend resulted in winning the grant of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation “Transatlantic Collisions of the XXIst century and Russia: political and cultural aspects” by the scholars of the department in 2010. Young specialists explore the problems of international relations, for example P.A. Luzin investigates the problem of modern international politics and strategic-level security. P.A. Luzin was a consultant of the scientific edition “Non-proliferation of nuclear weapon. Brief Encyclopedia. Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia, 2009”. P.A. Luzin also did the Candidate Dissertation “The USA Home Policy in the sphere of outer space: 2001-2010”.
Selected Publications Characterising Scientific Research Trend
1. Alpatova G.M. At the origins of the social state: W. Beveridge // Perm University Herald. 2009. Iss. 1(8). History. pp. 92–97. (In Russian)
2. Alpatova G.M. E. Bevan’s “Left March // Perm University Herald. 2010. Iss. 2 (14). History. pp. 98–103. (In Russian)
3. Vershinina D.B. Political culture and ideology in the West: gender aspect: Study Guide / Perm University, Perm, 2008. 129 p. (In Russian)
4. Vershinina D.B. Gender aspect of anti-war movement in Great British in the second half of the XXth century // // Imagines mundi: Almanac of World History of the XVI-XXth centuries research. № 6. (In Russian)
5. Series Albionica. Iss. 3. Yekaterinburg. The Ural University Press. 2008. pp. 112–122. (In Russian)
6. Vershinina D.B. Education of a citizen through gender approach in teaching History // Perm University Herald. 2009. Iss. 6(32). Series University education. Perm, 2009. pp. 109–115. (In Russian)
7. Vershinina D.B. Education and manners of English ladies in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Perm University Herald. 2010. Iss. 2 (14). pp. 93–97. (In Russian)
8. Vershinina D.B. Gender identity in politics (case study of Great Britain) // Perm University Herald. 2010. Series “Politology”. pp. 87–91. (In Russian)
9. Dementyeva S.N. The Age of the Enlightenment in Europe and Russia // The world of culture: Study Guide. Perm, 1999. Part 2. pp. 5–34. (In Russian)
10. Korotkova M.N. Samuel Huntington as a broad specialist in politics // Perm University Herald. Series “Politology”. 2009. № 2. pp. 69–78. (In Russian)
11. Korotkova M.N. Russian in F. Fukuyama and S. Huntington’s theories // RSTSD Records of the scientific theory of society development: Scientific Herald. 2009. № 6. pp. 18–34. (In Russian)
12. Lapteva M.P. Max Weber’s political views in the context of political culture // Political Views and Culture: Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference (Perm, 11-12 November, 2002). Perm, 2003. pp. 96–101. (In Russian)
13. Lapteva M.P. Theory and methods of History teaching. Course of lectures. Perm, 2007. (In Russian)
14. Lapteva M.P. Allan Megill’s intellectual intuition // Perm University Herald. Series “Politology. History”. 2009. Iss. 2 (6); 2 (9). pp. 132-–135. (In Russian)
15. Lapteva M.P. Annual Conference of the Russian Society of Intellectual History // Perm University Herald. 2010. Iss. 2 (14). History. pp. 132–134. (In Russian)
16. Luzin P.A. B. Obama administration strategy towards the international cooperation in outer space // Russia interests // World development. Iss. 7. Moscow: Institute of World Economics and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2011. (In Russian)
17. Luzin P.A. Outer space: perspectives of cooperation and conflicts // Security index. 2008. №4. (In Russian)
18. Russia and Great Britain in search of efficient governance: Study Guide. Perm, 2000. (In Russian)
19. Prudnikov A.Y. Towards the history of the Eurasianism concept: S.S. Malevsky-Malevich and his project of Russia development // Perm University Herald. Series “History”. 2011. №1. pp. 149–155. (In Russian)
20. Prudnikov A.Y. Ideal state of the past in the Eurasianism: N.N. Alekseev’s theory // RSTSD Records of the scientific theory of society development: Scientific Herald. Iss. 9 / Perm State Technical University; the Western Ural Institute of Economics and Law. Perm, 2011. pp. 55–74. (In Russian)
21. Ushkevich N.F. The XXth century: lights and shadows of mass culture // The world of culture: Study Guide. Perm, 1999. Part 2. pp. 109–140. (In Russian)
22. Ushkevich N.F. Centre and periphery in the Western culture of the XXth century // Peripheral aspect in the XXth century culture: Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference. Perm, 2001. pp. 91–95. (In Russian)
23. Ushkevich N.F. Artistic intelligentsia and left-wing extremist cultural movements during the Weimar Republic development // Political Thought and Culture: Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference (Perm, 11-12 November, 2002). Perm, 2003. pp. 110–120. (In Russian)
24. Shmidt T.Z. University intelligentsia as a promoter of the social reform (the late XIXth-early XXth century) // Political and intellectual communities in comparative perspective. Moscow: the World History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2007. pp. 258–260. (In Russian)
25. Shmidt T.Z. “Anti-social manorial spirit”: German entrepreneurs and social reforms // Zgodovinski vestnik univerz v Ljubljani in v Permu. Ljubljana; Perm. 2008. S. 5–14. (In Russian)
26. Shmidt T.Z. Unlucky “heir”: touches to the portrait of Reichschancellor Bethmann Hollweg // Perm University Herald. Series “History“.2008. Iss. 7(23). pp. 11–16. (In Russian)
27. Shmidt T.Z. Joint learning lessons // Perm University Herald. 2010. Iss. 2 (14). History. pp. 128–131. (In Russian)
The Most Significant Fundamental and Applied Research Projects
1. 2005 – The grant within the Programme “Universities of Russia” of the Ministry of Education. “The Empire Idea in the USA”.
2. 2010 – The grant of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. “Transatlantic Collisions of the XXIth century and Russia: political and cultural aspects”.
Training of Researchers (Post-graduate and Doctoral Programmes)
Post-graduate Programme, specialty 07.00.03 “World History”. Conferring the degree of Candidate of History.
International Research and Educational Activities
Cooperation with the universities of Helsinki, Warsaw and Krakow (Poland).