psuscience

Scientists Unite to Globally ‘Shape’ Weather

In less than 40 years, we will be able to control and analyze the weather – combining photonic technology and quantum computers, like preventing storms with a laser, say experts from the “Photonics” NTI Competence Center at Perm State University.

Making weather forecast more accurate and ‘local’? Possible, using optical sensors across the globe!  According to the Laboratory of Integral Photonics at PSU, incorporating the Bragg gratings into such sensors will increase their response to changes in temperature, humidity and ambient pressure. The use of fiber-optic communication lines will help transmit a tiny parameter change via optical signal to data processing centers – to have these data calculated and interpreted through quantum computers.

“By combining photonics and quantum computing technologies, we will be able to control various disasters or cyclones with greater precision. To implement that, we will have to create a new element-component base using photonic technologies, including photonic integrated circuits,” says Valery Kozhevnikov, expert at the Photonics NTI Competence Center, research engineer at the Integrated Photonics Laboratory, PSU. One of the Center’s projects concentrates upon making the platform to design and manufacture photonic integrated circuits, based on hybrid technology.

The principle task of constructing a climate and weather model is, among others, making calculations and building predictions out of incomplete or scattered initial data. The final forecast will be available for a download. As a result, we will enjoy a global network that monitors the weather at every single square mile or kilometer – just like buoys in the ocean or sea monitor water levels.

With ultra-short laser pulses passing through the atmosphere, it is also possible to stimulate precipitation in dry areas or wide distance fires. In 2021, the scientists from Switzerland have already used a laser lightning rod – the new method, which unlike the classical ones, does not cause  electromagnetic interference, hence the protection of electronics from possible interference.

The photonic integrated circuits will be extensively introduced in Russia by 2035.

Photonics is a dynamically developing area in science and technology, adjoining optics and electronics. Photonics uses photons rather than electrons to transmit data compared to electronics, introducing revolutionary change into entire industry. The solutions offered by photonics allow to increase the speed of information transfer and processing, reduce power consumption and provide a higher margin of competitiveness over electronic counterparts.

Today, photonics is a developing high-tech industry, which annual income from the sale of devices and systems exceeds any bold expectations. While in 2019 the photonics market was valued at $ 686.86 billion, it is now expecting to reach $ 1080.3 billion by 2025.

PSU Participates Russian-German Symposium

The International Academic Cooperation Office team spoke on behalf of Perm State University at the Russian-German Symposium “The Interaction of Climate Issues Coverage and Science Diplomacy.”

Young scholars, communicators in science and journalists from Germany and Russia used the Symposium platform to discuss the relevant issues, and practice academic communication skills in an interactive workshop. Addressing the topic, the team of Natalia Dobrynina, Kristina Vetrova and Anna Peisakhovich discussed the role of science diplomacy and science journalism.

On behalf of the German side, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences as a part of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres (GFZ Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam – Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum), and Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,) took part.

“The events like this are important for Russian universities, as they contribute to the progress of bilateral academic ties, effective academic communication and involvement in the search for joint solutions to global challenges,” says Natalya Dobrynina, Head of the International Academic Cooperation Office, PSU, in an interview with Dr. Ludwig Stroink, Head “Projects & International Affairs” – Executive Board, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.

Concentrating on the Symposium topic, the participants discussed the positive effect of climate research in international academic collaborations, contributing to the overall diplomatic climate. Dr. Géza Andreas von Geyr, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Germany to Russia (Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in der Russischen Föderation) participated in the discussion. The participation in the Symposium followed the goal of developing the science diplomacy at PSU within the framework of the “Rational Subsoil Use” Perm Research and Educational Center

Why Study Programming and Nano-Tech in Russia?

The doors to new friends, research collaborations, hi-tech and job opportunities: where to start with? Ever thought of studying neural networks, nanotechnology and programming? Why not try PSU?

According to https://www.payscale.com/ the average software developer salary in Russia is RUB 1,294,904 ($17,500) per year. In the global scale, the knowledge of programming plus competencies in nano-tech and neuroscience increases this figure several times, hence the demand for education in that field. Which is quite affordable here in central Russia, as well.

Recently, the students of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, PSU won prizes at the RuCode 4.0I international educational festival. Festival participants Vasily Chelpanov, Nikita Ponkin and Vladislav Smirnov won the artificial intelligence competitions.

The RuCode 4.0 IV All-Russian Educational Festival Finals in artificial intelligence and algorithmic programming were held on 20-21 November. In total, 5540 people from 82 regions of Russia and 39 countries took part. The Perm krai has entered Top 5 five active participants, taking the 4th place in terms of the number of Festival participants – 118 people.

PSU contestants took first and third places in the track by the School of Deep Learning at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and second in the track from Research Data Infrastructure, as well as prizes in the algorithmic programming championship.

“The championship allowed us to test our knowledge and skills in the field of machine learning. In one of the tasks, we had to experiment with architecture of neural networks, stepping in some kind of research. It was fun to see the solutions of the top participants on all tracks, and learn something new,”

says Nikita Ponkin, student of the Applied Mathematics and Computer Science Module, PSU.

The RuCode Festival is known as an international intensive training for young programmers who want to improve their knowledge and gain experience through competitions. The IT Network University and Perm State University assisted to the event in the Perm territory.

Picture source and more info on programming in Russia.

PSU Scientists Analyze Basalt Reserves in Belarus

As part of a group of Permian scientists, PSU geologists examined a deposit of basalts found in the Pinsk region (Belarus), regarding its capacity for production of cast glass-crystalline materials. The total reserves of basalt and tuff are estimated at 164.1 million tons.

“Basalt is known as one of the main ‘building components’ of the earth’s crust. Since 5/6 of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans, it is mostly the oceanic type we are talking about. With a thickness of 5-15 km (3-9 mi), it is mainly represented by basalts. The challenges of basalt technologies have been the subject of our University scientific research for more than 10 years,”

states Dr. Vladimir Naumov, Department of Prospecting and Exploration of Mineral Resources, PSU.

The laboratory and technological samples were sent to the Natural Science Institute at Perm State University, where a complex of analytical and experimental studies have been carried, determining the composition and mineral structure of the initial substance, as well as change of its properties under the high temperatures, within melting,. Using a micro-analyzer, information on samples’ chemical composition was obtained.

“Using the potential of a specially accredited lab here at PSU, enforced by professional equipment and experts involved, recommendations were developed for methods and parameters of rock processing to obtain cast glass-crystalline materials. The scientific report showed the charge compositions with various technological additives; it served a demonstration of specialized melting equipment and principles of its operation, and also commented on physicochemical properties of the materials obtained,”

says Dr. Vladimir Naumov.

The scientists presented a technological scheme for obtaining cast glass-crystalline and welding materials, as well as information on types of products and areas of their application. Also, the analysis of market demand and final products’ application have been performed, with regard to stone casting methods, on industrial scale.

The study involved the cooperation of several research teams, as a ‘test-drive’ consortium of Perm Scientific and Educational Center “Basalt Technologies” – uniting the research Laboratory of Sedimentary and Technogenic Deposits, the Laboratory of Mineralogical and Petrographic Studies at the Natural Science Institute (PSU), the Division of Nano-Mineralogy (PSU), as well as specialists from the Perm National Research Polytechnic University and the Helium Research and Production Company.

On photo: photomicrographs of obtained cast glass-crystalline materials’ surface

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